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Black Amp; Asian

Ethnic and gender differences in bone mineral acquisition were examined in a longitudinal study of 423 healthy Asian, black, Hispanic, and white males and females (aged 9-25 yr). Bone mass of the spine, femoral neck, total hip, and whole body was measured annually for up to 4 yr by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Age-adjusted mean bone mineral curves for areal (BMD) and volumetric (BMAD) bone mineral density were compared for the 4 ethnic groups. Consistent differences in areal and volumetric bone density were observed only between black and nonblack subjects. Among females, blacks had greater mean levels of BMD and BMAD at all skeletal sites. Differences among Asians, Hispanics, and white females were significant for femoral neck BMD, whole body BMD, and whole body bone mineral content/height ratio, for which Asians had significantly lower values; femoral neck BMAD in Asian and white females was lower than that in Hispanics. Like the females, black males had consistently greater mean values than nonblacks for all BMD and BMAD measurements. A few differences were also observed among nonblack male subjects. Whites had greater mean total hip BMD, whole body BMD, and whole body bone mineral content/height ratio than Asian and Hispanic males; Hispanics had lower spine BMD than white and Asian males. The tempo of gains in BMD varied by gender and skeletal site. In females, total hip, spine, and whole body BMD reached a plateau at 14.1, 15.7, and 16.4 yr, respectively. For males, gains in BMD leveled off at 15.7 yr for total hip and at age 17.6 yr for spine and whole body. Black and Asian females and Asian males tended to reach a plateau in BMD earlier than the other ethnic groups. The use of gender- and ethnic-specific standards is recommended when interpreting pediatric bone densitometry data.

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The perception of universal success among Asian-Americans is being wielded to downplay racism's role in the persistent struggles of other minority groups, especially black Americans. Chelsea Beck/NPR hide caption

Sullivan's piece, rife with generalizations about a group as vastly diverse as Asian-Americans, rightfully raised hackles. Not only inaccurate, his piece spreads the idea that Asian-Americans as a group are monolithic, even though parsing data by ethnicity reveals a host of disparities; for example, Bhutanese-Americans have far higher rates of poverty than other Asian populations, like Japanese-Americans. And at the root of Sullivan's pernicious argument is the idea that black failure and Asian success cannot be explained by inequities and racism, and that they are one and the same; this allows a segment of white America to avoid any responsibility for addressing racism or the damage it continues to inflict.

"Sullivan's comments showcase a classic and tenacious conservative strategy," Janelle Wong, the director of Asian American Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park, said in an email. This strategy, she said, involves "1) ignoring the role that selective recruitment of highly educated Asian immigrants has played in Asian American success followed by 2) making a flawed comparison between Asian Americans and other groups, particularly Black Americans, to argue that racism, including more than two centuries of black enslavement, can be overcome by hard work and strong family values."

"During World War II, the media created the idea that the Japanese were rising up out of the ashes [after being held in incarceration camps] and proving that they had the right cultural stuff," said Claire Jean Kim, a professor at the University of California, Irvine. "And it was immediately a reflection on black people: Now why weren't black people making it, but Asians were?"

These arguments falsely conflate anti-Asian racism with anti-black racism, according to Kim. "Racism that Asian-Americans have experienced is not what black people have experienced," Kim said. "Sullivan is right that Asians have faced various forms of discrimination, but never the systematic dehumanization that black people have faced during slavery and continue to face today." Asians have been barred from entering the U.S. and gaining citizenship and have been sent to incarceration camps, Kim pointed out, but all that is different than the segregation, police brutality and discrimination that African-Americans have endured.

At the heart of arguments of racial advancement is the concept of "racial resentment," which is different than "racism," Slate's Jamelle Bouie recently wrote in his analysis of the Sullivan article. "Racial resentment" refers to a "moral feeling that blacks violate such traditional American values as individualism and self reliance," as defined by political scientists Donald Kinder and David Sears.

"In fact, racial resentment reflects a tension between the egalitarian self-image of most white Americans and that anti-black affect. The 'racist,' after all, is a figure of stigma. Few people want to be one, even as they're inclined to believe the measurable disadvantages blacks face are caused by something other than structural racism. Framing blacks as deficient and pathological rather than inferior offers a path out for those caught in that mental maze."

Note: CPS ASEC changed its methodology in 2013, hence the break in the series. Solid lines are actual CPS ASEC data; dashed lines denote historical values imputed by applying the new methodology to past income trends. White refers to non-Hispanic whites, black refers to blacks alone, Asian refers to Asians alone, and Hispanic refers to Hispanics of any race. Comparable data are not available prior to 2002 for Asians. Shaded areas denote recessions.

Note: Earnings are wage and salary income. White refers to non-Hispanic whites, black refers to blacks alone, and Hispanic refers to Hispanics of any race. Asians are excluded from this figure due to the volatility of the series. Shaded areas denote recessions.

Note: Earnings are wage and salary income. White refers to non-Hispanic whites, black refers to blacks alone, and Hispanic refers to Hispanics of any race. Asians are excluded from this figure due to the volatility of the series. Shaded areas denote recession

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2017 at -women-and-men-earned-more-than-their-white-black-and-hispanic-counterparts-in-2017.htm (visited March 31, 2023).

When it comes to having these difficult conversations about racial injustices and especially violence, Thach believes it is critical for asian and Black solidarity to become a support system that not only addresses these jarring and difficult conversations but also serves as a stepping stone to help bring both communities closer together.

Categorizing and individual as a racial ingroup or outgroup member results in processing and memory differences. However, despite processing differences for racial ingroups and outgroups, very little is known about processing of racial ingroup and outgroup members during intergroup contexts. Thus, the present research investigated attention and memory differences for racial ingroup and outgroup members during competition for attention (i.e., intergroup contexts). In experiment 1, event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained while participants completed a working memory task that presented 4 faces (2 Black, 2 White) at once then, following a short delay, were probed to indicate the spatial location of one of the faces. Participants showed better location memory for Black than White faces. During encoding, ERP results revealed differences based on the race of the face in P300 amplitudes, such that there was greater motivated processing when attending to Black faces. At probe, the N170 indicated enhanced early processing of Black faces and greater LPCs were associated with better recollection of Black face location. In a follow-up study using the same task, we examined attention and working memory biases for Asian and White faces in Caucasian and Asian participants. Results for both Caucasian and Asian participants indicated better working memory for Asian relative to White faces. Together, results indicate that during intergroup contexts, racial minority faces capture attention, resulting in better memory for those faces. The study underscores that examining racial biases with single stimuli paradigms obscures important aspects of attention and memory biases during intergroup contexts.

The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is a small black and white mosquito, about 1/4-inch long. The name "tiger mosquito" comes from its white and black color pattern. It has a white stripe running down the center of its head and back with white bands on the legs. Note that other Illinois mosquitoes also have banded legs.

Employer callbacks for resumes that were whitened fared much better in the application pile than those that included ethnic information, even though the qualifications listed were identical. Twenty-five percent of black candidates received callbacks from their whitened resumes, while only 10 percent got calls when they left ethnic details intact. Among Asians, 21 percent got calls if they used whitened resumes, whereas only 11.5 percent heard back if they sent resumes with racial references.

Some black students bleached out this information because they were concerned they might come across as politically radical or tied to racially controversial causes in a way that could turn off an employer. 041b061a72


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